Mass Media Project – Image Advertising


Observation: Ever since I was a little kid, I have constantly been bombarded with numerous images of women and men, and how each gender should look. As a teenager, I have been exposed to a lot of this in the media, but for this assignment I will be focusing on image advertising in magazines. Around my house are lots of magazines. My mom always ordered the classic women’s magazines, like Chatelaine and Glamour. Whereas my dad has always been more interesting in magazines about farming and agriculture.

Purpose: To assess how women and men are portrayed in media, specifically magazines. And to discover what kind of techniques advertisers use to create an unrealistic body image for both males and females.

Hypothesis: Based off of my general observation of magazines that have been laying around my house, I can hypotheses that the women’s magazines will primarily be full of skinny models, makeup advertisements (probably some foundations and wrinkle cream), and the odd plus size model, that aren’t really plus size. I also hypotheses that the agriculture magazine’s will be full of men in work clothes working on their farms/crops and doing “manly” things.

Research and Further Observations: For this assignment, I have chosen 4 magazines. A Chatelaine, Glamour, Farm Forum, and AgriSuccess. I have found that in the magazines primarily targeted towards men who farm are full of just that. There are numerous pictures of men in tractors, on the field, and lots of photos of healthy, rich crops. I noticed that there isn’t a specific body image that is portrayed throughout the articles. There were many men that were of different shapes and sizes, and didn’t appear to be products of photo shop. Although, I found that every man in the two magazines appeared to be Caucasian. But that was most likely due to the fact that nearly all farmers in this neck of the woods is Caucasian. The only picture that portrayed a body image/stereotype was this advertisement:


One other thing that I found surprising was that 2/3 times that a women was in the two magazines; she was along side a man (most likely her partner).


Only 1 of the 3 pictures of a women was she alone, and it was because it was a picture of her beside the article she had written for the magazine. Furthermore, the women’s magazines were much different then the magazines that were more likely of a mans interests. But, they were much of what I predicted to be. For example, this was on the third page of the Chatelaine magazine:


And as I predicted, much of the Chatelaine magazine had followed what I thought it would. It is primarily focused on getting a better appearance through beauty products, dieting and recipes, and accepting who you are. Throughout the articles there were numerous pictures of women, specifically women wearing tight swimwear. I was encouraged to see that not all of the women looked unrealistically slim, but still, most were fairly small and petite. On the other hand, I found that the Glamour magazine was much more empowering for women. For example, the cover has many empowering statements. Such as “show off that body!” and “Women are strong as hell”. Also, the woman on the front cover is a black women and isn’t stick thin. She has some meat on her bones, but she is still very toned and glowy, almost to an unrealistic point. Much like the Chatelaine mag, Glamour has numerous advertisements of makeup that portray unreasonable beauty standards for women. It also contains many fashion, hair, and lifestyle tips, that are not practical for an everyday woman. One of the articles in this magazine was about woman in the Olympics, and contained this photo:


I find this particular picture empowering because it is advertising a sport that is typically orientated with men. As a woman who plays hockey, I find it comforting to see other women playing sports that mostly men play. I like this picture the most because it is going against the grain and is something different. It isn’t just another ad about a foundation or wrinkle cream that you should be using. It’s actually different and fights gender typical stereotypes; I wish more women’s and men’s magazines would stop enforcing specific gender roles.

Data Analysis: The whole purpose of this assignment was to assess how women and men are portrayed in media, specifically magazines. And to determine what kind of methods are used in magazines to create unrealistic body images for both males and females. From the four magazines that I analysed, I found that the men and women in them weren’t portrayed as badly as I thought they would be. Mostly in the men’s magazines, their bodies weren’t represented in any certain way. In fact, I think body images in those two specific resources were very realistic. Whereas in the women’s magazines, there were still numerous pictures that included flawless, skinny, toned models. There were a few plus size models, but again they were really toned and flawless. Which is great, but it isn’t really realistic. No one should expect all women to be that toned and glowy. Finally, I found that the techniques that advertisers used the most was pictures. I think they use pictures the most because they catch your eye and are very easy to compare yourself to. Which in some cases, may be unhealthy. Overall, the woman’s articles were a lot more unrealistic then the men’s. 

Conclusion: Finally, I have come to the conclusion that I think magazines portray an unrealistic image for both men and women. I believe that men would be more unrealistically represented in a male fashion magazine, or men from the acting industry, since most of them are super fit. But since I chose a farming magazine, I think that those particular resources were not focused on images of the men, but more so the crops that they were growing. And for women, I thought the magazines might be worse, but I was uplifted to see some realistic body images and a few articles that went against common gender roles (the basketball picture and article that went along with it).


Glamour Magazine, issue July 2016

Chatelaine Magazine, issue June 2016

Farm Forum Magazine, issue Spring 2016

AgriSuccess Magazine, issue May/June 2016



RAFT- My Life is a Hockey Rink

Dear life:

To me, you are a hockey rink… You’ve had your fair share of wins and loses. You’ve had some great games, and some not so great. Throughout your life, you’ve always tried your hardest and were never scared to face your fears. You take every day, one at a time, just like every game of hockey. You’ve taken your crappy games on the ice, and used them to motivate yourself and become a better version of who you are today. There are many aspects to a game of hockey, much like life. To me, you are a goalie. IMG_1218You aren’t afraid to take a few shots to the head and you strive off of the pressure that is put on you. But on the contrary, you know you have the ability to let people down. There have been times where you disappointed some people, but you made it your personal mission to regain that trust factor and get back in goal. And get back in goal better then ever. You look forward to the big games, especially the big wins. You tell all your friends about that incredible save you made, and how you saved the game. You replay that game over and over in your head. But that only lasts for a bit. It doesn’t take you long to see past your accomplishments, and focus on the next thing life has coming your way. You find it hard to forget about your bad games, and you keep asking yourself why that had to happen to you. Those bad games seem to resonate deep in your bones, and are hard to get over. But once you get over your bad games, you strive in the games that take place after that one bad game. You never fail to make a come back and prove to everyone that you are okay. IMG_3387Life, you are a hockey rink because you have taught me everything I know. You have taught me to always try your hardest and to never give up, even if you’re losing by a couple of points. You have taught me that if you help others, you will be paid back in the long run. You’ve taught me that people come and go, and that you need to let go in order to move on. My life is like a game of hockey because you are always in my mind. I never forget how lucky I am to have you and how you have influenced me as a person. Without hockey, I wouldn’t be who I am today. You have introduced me to so many new people, places, experiences, and skills.

Collective Behaviour

A collective behaviour can be described as “a collection of unwritten rules and norms followed by a group of people who share common beliefs, values, and interests, with the goal of inter-stimulation”. the-12-worst-drugs-to-get-addictAn example of a group that falls under this category are gangs. Gangs are kind of like a small organized group of offenders. People may join a gang because they feel accepted in that group, their friends are in it (or peer pressured them to also join), they enjoy being rebellious, they are curious to what people in gangs might do, or they are bored and are looking for something interesting to do. The gang might also run in that person’s family or neighbourhood, and they might be forced to join. A person might also join a gang to get access to things, such as drugs and alcohol. In a gang, I believe there are a set of unwritten rules that the members kind of have to follow. These rules are probably put in place by the member who has the most power or whoever is the leader. I also think that the rules are probably different for each gang. I would imagine that the rules are probably very strict. After I did some research, I found that there are approximately 7,000 youth gang members in Canada. Saskatchewan has the second highest gang population with 28 youth gangs and 1,315 members. The facts I stated earlier were from 2002, and in 2002 Canada’s population was roughly 35 million. So therefor, approximately .023% of people living in Canada are apart of a youth gang, which is also 1 in every 5,000 youths. And I feel like that’s not too bad, it could be much worse. Furthermore, gangs portray certain behaviors. 160127_mens-rea_siegel-1250x650.pngThese behaviors may be committing crimes (stealing vehicles, doing/dealing drugs, own guns illegally), arrogant and defiant attitude, trying to be intimidating, respecting the people in your gang (especially the leader), retaliation, helping their fellow gang members, and being loyal to your gang.



Theories of Learning Styles

The Different Styles of Learning


  1. Visual Learners: Visual learning is a learning and teaching style using visual representations. Such as pictures, maps, images, and colors. Using a graphic symbol as a teaching/learning technique helps visual learners because it is a technique that works best with how they learn. We know that certain methods of learning help people in various ways. Specifically, visual learners retain information best when it is presented visually to them. This means that they will retain the most information when the material is presented by using maps, gestures, videos, posters, diagrams, graphs, and symbols. When a visual leaner is taking notes, it may be best for them to colour code, underline important terms and include picture notes.
  2. Auditory Learners: Auditory learners use hearing to learn things best. They remember information best when they hear it or say it themselves. Learning techniques that work the best for them are group discussions, lectures and conversing about the topic. Repetition the content that is being discussed is the best way for an auditory learner to retain the information that is being processed. In order to learned like this, these learners may record their notes on a tape and listen to it repeatedly, have a group discussion about it, and read or explain the notes/assignments to peers.
  3. Reading/Writing Learners: Learners that fall in this category of teaching/learning comprehend information best by reading it and writing it down. People that understand content best this way tend to do things like make lists, take notes, re-read their notes, read the textbook and re-write the information they find in the textbook. Personally, I think this is one of the more boring learning techniques, but I also feel like it always works. You can’t really fail by writing and reading information to absorb it.
  4. Kinesthetic Learners: Kinesthetic learners are hands-on learners. This means they comprehend information best when they are working with their hands to do something. For example, this type of learner will understand making a clock best when they actually help make it, rather than just watching someone build it.


The implications that the theories have for me as a learner

  1. Math and Science: I learn best in math and science classes by watching the instructor images.jpegdo a question and talking the class through it. I also find that writing it down and typing it into my calculator as the teacher does it helps me too. And to further my understanding, I will try a couple practice questions. If all of that somehow doesn’t work, then I will resort to getting a classmate explain it to me, by showing me what they did and discussing the question. Then, if I am still struggling, I will do the question with the teacher and work through it with him/her. I would say this is a combination of auditory, writing and kinesthetic learning.
  2. ELA and History: For both ELA and History, I find that I retain the most information when I write it down, join in class discussions, and get told interesting/funny stories that have to do with the content. Otherwise, I usually find the content boring and I get distracted. I also learn the best in these classes from doing assignments, especially assignments that I am interested in and passionate about. I do not learn well from history videos, because I find it really boring and super hard to focus on. I would say, for these classes I use auditory and writing learning styles.
  3. PAA: I’m not good at PAA, so I never really liked doing it. But I can relate this more to stuff I actually enjoyed doing that is kind of like PAA. Some tasks that I do at home that I think are related to PAA are cutting grass, running skid steer, using electric John_Deere_X310_100914.jpgdrills, and so on (and even building Ikea furniture). I find that for these kind of tasks, I learn best by getting taught one on one on how to do it. This would include talking about how to use it, asking questions about it, and watching a short demonstration by the instructor and then doing it on my own. I would classify this as auditory and kinesthetic learning styles.


My Preferred Learning Style, and How I Know

I think that I do not have one preferred learning style, I find that I learn best when information is presented in more ways then one, because that way, I don’t get bored of the content. I usually understand content the best when I write it down over and over again, and do practice questions. Furthermore, things that also help me retain information are things such as images that I can remember and funny or interesting stories. download.pngThat being said, I do not retain much information when someone lectures me about it for an hour. I need to be involved in a group discussion. For classes such as science, where you are required to see how something works, I find that I learn best if I can help with a demonstration to see how to diagram operates. So, overall I think that I am a combination of all the learning styles, but I excel best in the writing learners. I believe I am strong in my math courses, because I find it easy to achieve a good grade if I just work on practice questions. Which I guess is kind of hands on for that subject too.

Howards Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

A Personal Look at Multiple Intelligences


  1. In which of Gardner’s intelligences do you believe that you excel? What evidence can you show?

As is said in the article, Gardner claims that it is common for people to hold more than one of these intelligences. I feel as though, I posses more than one of these intelligences. But, I do not excel in all of them. So, after deep thought, I think it is fair to say these are the 3 intelligences I excel in.

Logical-mathematical intelligence: The logical-mathematical intelligence is used to solve problems, manipulate numbers, make connections, and recognize patterns. The first thing that I thought of when hearing “logical-mathematical intelligence” is math, science, and physics. I know that I am pretty good at all three of those subjects, and enjoy most of the content within it. I believe I excel in this intelligence because I enjoy what it is about, I am fairly good at it, and I like that it challenges me. Contrastingly, I think the logical-mathematical intelligence goes further then just math and science courses. I believe it can also be connected to classes such as English. In English you have to find patterns and create connections. This is also a skill that I am good at, and I don’t mind doing it either.

Intrapersonal intelligence: The intrapersonal intelligence is about understanding yourself and knowing your limitations, goals and so on. I think that I excel in this intelligence because I value myself and make sure I take good care of myself. I will put myself ahead of others if needed. I know what I like and dislike. I also know what I want to achieve and how to do so. In the past 6 months, I have especially gotten to know myself better. I understand myself more and understand why I am the person I am.

Interpersonal intelligence: The interpersonal intelligence is based off of having a strong understanding of people, more specifically the individuals around you. I think that I am fairly strong in this intelligence because I enjoy being around people and participating in conversations with them. I enjoy discussing current events, people’s problems, troubles, or even just sharing stories. I like to think of myself as a people watcher. I enjoy seeing how people act and respond in certain situations. I find these things fascinating and I like talking to people about these kind of things; learning new things about them and helping them with whatever that may be bothering them or enjoying their victories with them.

  1. How does this affect the way you currently approach learning and school assignments?

Based on my answer to question number one, I think all those three intelligences (and my ability to achieve them) have a large influence on how I learn and act in school/class. More specifically, I use my intrapersonal intelligence to analyze myself. I believe you have to know where you are at before you can really achieve anything. You need to understand your goals, what you can achieve in a certain amount of time, set standards for yourself and figure out a way to reach and excel your standards. Secondly, in more social situations I use my interpersonal intelligence. For example, in class I use this to analyze how people are responding to a situation. I let my understanding of people influence how I learn and act at school. Specifically, during a lesson, I will see how others are learning the content, and then I will try doing that myself. I also let others fuel me to do well in school. I purposely surround myself with people who work hard at school and people who value their education. This way, it inspires and influences me to do the same and have the same outlook as those individuals. Lastly, and most literally connected to school, is my logical-mathematical intelligence.

  1. How might the theory of multiple intelligences affect your thinking about your future?

I think that the theory of multiple intelligences will affect how I think about the future, because by taking a look at each of them and evaluating myself, I know what ones I am good at, and ones that I am not so good at. Therefor, I will look for a career/university courses that I am good at. For example, if I didn’t possess the logical-mathematical intelligence, then I wouldn’t look for a career that is heavily influenced by math and logics. But, I do possess the logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligences, so I will use that to my advantage. I know that in my future, I want to put those things to good use and get some benefits from them. Knowing about the theory of multiple intelligences may also effect how I see and perceive other people. Knowing about all the intelligences makes it easier for me to understand why some people do things. This may benefit me in my future because I will understand why people do certain things that they do.


  1. What social groups do you belong to? What are the norms of behaviour that the group demonstrates?

The social groups that I associate myself with would be the track team, my hockey team, my peers and classmates, as well as a few other people from school (a few grade 10s and 12s), the community of Vibank, and my family. For track, I think the normal behavior demonstrated is to try your best, to push yourself further and to always be your best self. For being your best self, this is from physical abilities to being supportive and having a good sportsmanship. Each of these norms are also demonstrated on the hockey team I play for. IMG_1218On my hockey team another norm is to always have fun and support one another. It’s all about being a team and helping each other out. Some social norms that me and my friends have is to support one another, have fun, trust each other, be accepting, be honest and don’t lie about stuff and to push each other to be the best you can be (whether this is physically, mentally, emotionally or spiritually). For Vibank, norms that are commonly demonstrated are helping out the community, offering support to one another, and taking part in community projects and initiatives. Lastly, the social norms in my family are to respect one another, be honest, help each other out, and always try to be the best you can be.


  1. How would you describe the qualities of your gender, in other words, what qualities of “maleness” or “femaleness” do you demonstrate?

Commonly (and kind of stereotypically) women are said to be emotional, dependant, sensitive, nurturing, accepting, graceful, and flirtatious. I think that to a degree, these are right, but these are also very flexible. No two people are exactly the same and have the same qualities or characteristics as one another. For me, I think that I hold both female and male characteristics. I’ve always been kind of a “tomboy”, I probably inherited this because of hanging out with my brothers. Anyways, I think the qualities that I demonstrate are emotional, competitive, active, accepting, sensitive, stubborn, empowering, and nurturing. male-and-female-relationship-signI also think that I hold other qualities, but these can change due to the situation I am put in. For example, if I’m playing a serious game of hockey, I’m not going to be quiet and gentle. Instead, I will probably be loud, competitive and aggressive. Overall, I think the qualities that I demonstrate really depend on what kind of situation I find myself in.


  1. What have you discovered from your own behavior?

This past year has hands down been the most difficult year I’ve ever experienced. I have dealt with many situations, some more serious and difficult then others. With having a difficult year, I have learnt a lot and had to be a lot more mature. From my own behavior in the past year and years before this year I have discovered many things. Mainly, I have
IMG_0979.jpglearned to take everyday as it comes because at any moment anything can be taken away from you, relationships are more important than money, be grateful for the things you have and have earned, and make sure your priorities are always in the right order.
More specifically, I have discovered that I don’t like to show my emotions, I am very particular with who I converse with and what I tell them, I can be very stubborn, I work best on my own although I enjoy the presence of others, I depend on others for support and advice (again, I am very conscious to who I discuss that kind of stuff with though), I am very self driven and I always try to keep balance in my life, and I make sure I take good care of myself and the people around me.


  1. Who do you compare yourself to? Is your comparison based on self-assessment, self-improvement or self-enhancement?

I believe that I usually compare myself to my peers, the people I am close with, my family, people on my hockey team and people that I look up to. IMG_0997I think that my comparison is most commonly based on self-assessment and improvement. I like to know who I am as a person, and how I can improve or change that for the better. For example, I like to compare myself to my goalie partner, Brooklyn Lund IMG_1213and to my favorite NHL goalie, Carey Price. When I do this, I take a look at who I am as a goalie and how I am performing. And then by comparing myself to Brooklyn and Carey, I try to see where I can get better and have a better performance on and off the ice. Furthermore, on self-assessment, I compare myself to family. This helps me analyze who I am as a person. I also do this because I FullSizeRenderenjoy seeing how much alike and different I am compared to my parents and siblings.




  1. Bob Segar – Feel Like a Number

De-personalizing someone is to deprive someone of feeling of an individual personality. I think that everyone experiences this feeling at one point or another in their life. Personally, I feel de-personalized mostly when I work at the Grotto. I find this especially relevant when costumers are rude and don’t acknowledge you. I find it really frustrating, because I make sure I do good at my job, and when that isn’t recognized it’s annoying. I know I also feel de-personalized when we are discussing female and male stereotypes. And common characteristics of being a woman or man. I think this is because each of those things are just a generalisation, and being ‘general’ takes away that feeling of being individualistic. I would imagine that this makes other people feel de-personalized as well.

My Personality Test

My Results


My results from were, introverted-16%, sensing- 1%, feeling- 6%, and judging- 33%. This gives me the “ISFJ” personality type. In a short summary these results claim that I am very organised, reflective, observant, reserved, and thought and achievement orientated. As well as, my results claim that I am very traditional, realistic, practical, empathetic, accepting or warm. These traits aren’t nearly as high as the others, but they are still present in my personality.


Introverted and Extroverted

introvert-vs-shy.jpgI am an introvert! Based on the research I did at, I have found out that introverted people tend to be very self aware, thoughtful, enjoys detail, keeps their emotions private, are quiet in larger groups, more social around people they know well and learn well through observation. Overall, I think I represent many of these characteristics; some more than others. For example, I think I am very aware of myself. From my actions to my emotions. I can easily figure out if I am upset or excited over any situation. I think this is because I have experienced so much emotion in the past year of my life. From my mom passing away to having my first really serious boyfriend. I have learned so much from both of these significant events. I feel as though I’ve had to mature through my teen years in the matter of one night with everything regarding my mom. I now have a lot more responsibilities and need to understand myself more due to that. With that said, I can defiantly say I like to keep my emotions to myself. I am very private about that. I only share significant details about my life to very few people. I prefer to have a small group of close friends, but I do enjoy being known in a large group. I believe growing up in a small town has influence on this. Such as the fact that I am used to everyone knowing everyone. So therefor, I love going to my school and having lots of people I can refer to as acquaintances and friends. But, when it comes to my “best friends” I have only a few. I like to be very close with very few people. That is how I’ve been for a long time and I think I will always be that way. Lastly, one of the common characteristics of an introvert is being quiet in large groups. I think I fall into this category less than any of the others. This is because, I don’t mind large groups. I think they are very fun and I enjoy how something is always going on. I am more quiet in large groups compared to small, although, I am loud in large groups that I am comfortable in (classroom discussions, family gatherings, parties).


Sensing and Intuition


For this section, I am classified as more of a sensing character compared to an intuitive person. I found the following information at A sensing person is most likely to remember events as snapshots of what actually happened, solve problems by working through facts until the problem is understood, are pragmatic and look to the ‘bottom line’, start with facts and then form a big picture, trust experience over words and symbols, and finally, occasionally pay too much attention to facts, which may result in missing new opportunities. I only scored 1% in this section, but I feel like for the most part, I can connect to the above statements. For example, I think when I solve problems, I first approach it by understanding the facts of it. Which is commonly what a sensing person is likely to do. I also like to analyze the facts I am presented with and then form a big picture based off of those. Furthermore, that is typically how I approach my school assignments. For example, I figured out how I was going to divide the sections up before I started this assignment. I like working with a plan that is in place which I can follow. I find that that works best for me. I don’t really think that I look at facts too much to miss an opportunity. I find that slightly unrealistic for me. Lastly, I know that I defiantly trust experience over words and symbols. I like to know exactly what goes on, and experience it myself rather than going off of what someone has said about it.


Thinking and Feeling


I got feeling for this portion of the test. This means that “Feelers decide based primarily through social considerations, listening to their heart and considering the feelings of others … They value harmony and use tact in their interactions with others. At work, they are sociable and people-oriented and make many decisions based on values.” ( I received 6% in the feeling section. I don’t agree with many of these points. I believe that I am a compassionate person, and that comes from everything I’ve been through this past year, but I don’t think I let that get the best of me. From the information that I gathered, it sounds like “feelers” are more soft apposed to “thinkers”. Which, perhaps they are, but I like to think that I have a balance between thinking and feeling for a person. I believe that I am kind of in between them. According to the same website I used above, “Thinkers decide based primarily on logic, and when they do so, they consider a decision to be made. They tend to see the world in black and white and dislike fuzziness. They focus on tangible things, seeking truth and use of clear rules. At work, they are task-oriented, seek to create clear value. Interacting with them tends to brief and business-like”. Furthermore, I think that I understand and care for when people have a solid excuse to not be at work, school, and so on. But I also highly believe in logic, decisions, truthfulness and rules. I think rules aren’t to be broken, but deadlines can be flexible. I think deadlines can be flexible in only very serious circumstances. Like if a person has experienced a death in his/her family or has been giving some life changing/threatening news. Overall, I know I have a soft side and am able to use that in given circumstances, but I also still believe in discipline, rules and logic. I am not a big fan of black and white decisions, but I also find “fuzziness” to be unclear and often confusing. So overall, I’d say I’m both a thinker and feeler.  I’m not too sure which side I lean more towards.


Judging and Perceiving


I scored 33% in the judging category, this was my highest percentage of all the traits. According to, people who have the judging trait tend to have characteristics such as decisiveness, organized, structured, good at finishing things they start, stay on schedule, make plans, responsible and like closure. Overall, I think I have many of these characteristics. Most predominantly, I am very organized, good at staying on schedule, I enjoy making plans, and I am very responsible. I prefer having closure, but it won’t take me too long to get over if I don’t. Additionally, the same website says that people with the perceiving trait contain characteristics such as adaptable, relaxed, disorganized, care-free, spontaneous, keeps options open, procrastinates, dislikes routine, and is flexible. And again, I for sure fall under certain traits in that category. For example, I would consider myself adaptable and relaxed. But I still prefer to have a plan of action over free-balling. I also feel like I want to be more free spirited and spontaneous. I think that the most fun and memorable things are often unplanned. In addition to that, I also am a fairly talented procrastinator. I don’t procrastinate with presentations or studying for tests, but if I have an assignment that I find really boring, I will usually hand it in late. Or sometimes I am just lazy. At last, I believe I am more of a judgement person over perceiving.

April 14th Blog Entry

Fundamental Attribution Error

By definition, the fundamental attribution error is the likeliness for people to place an inappropriate emphasis on your personality in order to explain someone else’s behaviour in a situation, rather than considering the situation’s external factors. In further explanation, when you meet a person for the first time, and they aren’t having a good day (because of other external factors), your immediate response may be that that person isn’t a fun person. Or perhaps you think they are sad or depressed. Often people come to this conclusion before examining the external factors that may be making them upset.


According to Simply Psychology, prejudice is “an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative) towards an individual based solely on the individual’s membership of a social group”. For example, one person may not like another person solely because of their race, gender, religon, or sexuality.


A stereotype is a commonly held idea (usually negative) about specific groups of people. Common examples of stereotypes are that all women are bad drivers, all black men play basketball, and that all Asian’s do very well in school.


Discrimination is defined as “an action or a decision that treats a person or a group negatively for reasons such as their race, age or disability“. An example of discrimination is saying that you don’t like someone because of something they are a part of. In further examination, you could say “I don’t like that girl because she wears skinny jeans”.




Man Counselor Criminal Politician Canadian Plumber Girl Hockey Player

People’s one word responses

Tall Help Scary Talkative Eh Butt crack Innocent Strong
Strong Help Bad Stuck up Country Unmotivated Independent Passionate
Tall Weird Bad guy Rip offs Me Butt crack Pretty Mean
Mad man Helpful Smooth Greasy Me Pipes Pretty Awesome
Women Helpful Bad Sneaky Eh Butt crack Baby Sports
Husband Help Stealer Brad Wall Me Job Daughter Gretzgy
Tall Scary Childhood Brave Proud Gross Boy Contact
Work Problems Prison Trump Moose Poop Boy Puck
Women Annoying Bad Stupid Cold Van Little Cocky
Strong Psychologist Delinquent Liars Eh Butt crack Feminism Fast reflexes

Common Stereotypes

Throughout my survey, I thought that some answers were fairly stereotypical. Further more, I noticed how when I asked older people, they were less stereotypical compared to the younger peoples answers. I find this interesting because you can see that the age difference between two people makes them believe/think in two different ways. I asked more young people, compared to older individuals. For certain categories like “man”, it was most common for people to say things like strong, tall, tough, and big. Whereas when I asked the subjects about the word “girl”, they said less intimidating responses such as small, pretty, little and independent. Also, I think if I said “girl” in a different way, such as “woman” or “lady” the responses may have been different. I think those words seem  older and more professional. So the responses may have been more like independent, strong, feminine, and so on. The category that I found that was the least stereotypical was counsellor. But maybe that is because I am not sure what stereotypes would be associated with a counsellor. I think the most personal, the one that was most opinionated was the politician. Many people had different responses. Overall, I think the one with the most stereotypical response was plumber, because immediately, many of the participants said “butt crack”, which to some degree, didn’t surprise me.

The Six Grand Theories of Attitude


The psychoanalysis theory is based on a persons internal conflict with there id and super ego. Secondly, it is based on the stages that you go through as you grow up and experience new things. With experiencing new things and growing up, your brain develops and you find yourself and understand who you are and why. It is reasonable to assume that each Id Ego and Superegotheoretical perspective has different views. For example, psychoanalytic theorists may believe that attitude development is based off of how we ourselves, deal and present ourselves with the situations that we are in. A person may be in an uncontrollable external situation, but it is up to them, their attitude and behaviour to decide how they will react in that environment. A person can decide to let their inner “devil”, “angel” or you can choose to compromise on what you are going to do. So, I think that psychoanalytic theorists believe that your attitude development is highly dependant on your personal reaction to any situation you are put in. For this section, psychoanalytic theorists might believe that attitude development isn’t based off external forces, but rather your personal reaction to the external force.


Theorists that fall under the behaviourism category believe in conditioning and rewarding positive behaviour. It is associated with a learning process. These theorists believe that all behaviour is learned as a response to external stimuli. So, I think it is safe to say that these theorists believe that as a person, you develop your attitude from the external forces that you are exposed to. The way you react to situations is dependant on how you have seen other people react in those types of situations. Or just how those people react in any situation. External people that have the biggest influence to the person may be their friends, family, significant other, or people that they look up to. 


Cognitivism is a theory based off of personal growth in the cognitive mind and how culture influences our understanding of ourselves and the world around us. I believe that theorists that fall under the cognitivism section think that attitude development is due to how mature our cognitive mind is and how we let the world and cultures around us, influence us. Attitude development, in the eyes of cognitivism theorists, probably think that how you act is influenced by how old you act and how mature you are as a person. The older you get, the more cognitively mature you are (based on Jean Piaget’s 4 stages). Lev Vygotsky thinks that the culture around you is the biggest influence on who you are as a person, and therefor how you act as a person.

Ecological Theory

The ecological theory is a system that revolves around the world we live in. It is composed of yourself, the microsystem, and the exosystem. It is all about how you as an individual are influenced by the ecosystems that you are in the middle of. So, I believe that theorists that study the ecological theory may believe that your attitude development is due to the factors located in your ecosystem. So, in your microsystem, you may included your family, friends, significant other, classroom and job. I think that ecological theorists would believe that your attitude development would be heavily influenced on your ecological theory model that you have built for yourself. But most importantly, your attitude would be effected mostly by the people and factors in your microsystem.


The two theorists involved with humanism believe that people’s underlying wish is to be loved and respected. They also think that a person much achieve their basic needs, and then more complex parts of their life before they can achieve self actualization. Maslow, hierarchy of needswho believes in self actualization, would associate his theory to how our attitudes develop. I believe that he would say that you need to achieve at least the first three layers of his theory. Then you would use all the aspects from those sections to develop your attitude. You attitude develops more and more as you continue to climb up the pyramid, and eventually achieve self actualization. The other theorist for this section probably believes that your attitude development depends on whether you are love and respected or not. For example, if you aren’t very loved and not many people respect you, you may be frustrated, lonely, and struggle a lot. So therefor, your attitude would reflect on that. You would have a bad attitude and may not be as positive as someone who is loved and respected.


The evolutionary theory is based on attachment and the evolution of a person/thing. Specifically, Konrad Lorenz believes that as soon as something is born, it will immediately attach its self to the first thing it recognizes. Therefor, Lorenz may believe that your attitude development is based off of what you are immediately exposed to. You pick up the things that you are exposed to and reflect them in your behaviour and attitude. For example, if you are always exposed to happy people, your attitude may also be happy. So, for this section attitude development may be based on attaching to the first attitude that you are exposed to.



All About Attitude



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Section 1

An attitude is “a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols” (Hogg, & Vaughan 2005, p. 150). Every individual has a different attitude towards certain things in their life.  These attitudes are formed by experiences, how you were brought up (parents), who you hangout with and what you believe in. It is believed that attitudes may be described with three main components; affective, behavioural, and cognitive component. The affective part describes a persons feelings and emotions about the attitude object. Behavioural focuses on how our attitude influences how we act and behave. Lastly, the cognitive component involves the knowledge and believes a person has about an attitude object. Each of these components have a major influence on our attitudes towards things. Attitude may also be influenced by more practical things like what our friends, family and peers believe in, personal experiences, and media/mass marketing in the social world. Also who we surround ourselves with has an influence on how we carry ourselves. The formation and why we have a certain attitude have ties together. Both are heavily influenced by peers, family and who we look up to. I think that even more specific things influence our behaviour and attitude as well. Such as the type of music we listen to. Or the shows/movies we watch. Even things like how we see ourselves (confidence levels) and what we think others think of ourselves. Attitudes play a big part in our lives. I like to think that your attitude makes you more diverse/dimensional and adds depth to your character. Without attitude and a certain behaviour that you may give off, we would be bland and boring. Attitude adds individuality. It can also change and make us view people in certain ways. We have an attitude to let people know how we feel, what we like and don’t like, and so we are able to show others our characteristics and what we are like as a person. Attitudes can change at certain times in your life. For instance, if something occurs in your life to make you suddenly depressed, your attitude isn’t going to be as uplifting as it was before. So, it can change because of experiences, change in beliefs, change in character, and possibly even a change in outlook (positive or negative). In comparison to how attitudes can change, there is a difference in a males attitude compared to females. Biologically, females are more prone to be more sympathetic, caring and show more emotions (crying). This is because women don’t produce as much testosterone as men. Testosterone is a chemical in the human body that has effect on your emotions and attitude. It has the ability to make you show less emotions like crying and being sad. This is why guys tend to cry less then women, because there bodies produce more of this chemical. Women and men are also different when it comes to attitude because women have that natural sense to care, love and help others. Where as men are more likely to not show that as much. Overall, attitude plays a very big part in our everyday lives and without it we would be a very boring species.

Section 2

As I said before, it is very common for people to have diverse behaviours and attitudes. Specifically, people may have a negative or positive attitude. Behaviours that go hand in hand with a positive attitude are things like motivating yourself and others, being happy, 00enjoying your life, laughing and smiling, being proud of yourself and others around you, having hope for the future, being true to yourself, and being friendly. On the other end of the spectrum, a negative attitude may be characterized by things like having depression, having no hope for yourself or the future, being sad all the time, not being able crying-cat-faceto see the positive in things, negative comparison with others, having negative assumptions, duelling on the past, blaming others, and never or rarely being happy. I think that the attitudes of people around you rub off on to you. If you surround yourself with positive and motivated people, you are most likely going to be motivated and positive too. In comparison, I think that parents (to some degree) have a influence on their children’s behaviours and attitudes. For example, if a kids parents are constantly fighting, it is going to be difficult for that child to be happy and have a positive outlook. But I also believe that as that kid gets older, they will start to mature and are able to handle themselves. Therefor, they will be able to choose if they want to be sad or happy, positive or negative. The parental environment that a child is in may influence their current attitudes, and if that child’s parents motivate them or not may have an influence of if that child is a motivated person. Overall, I think kids are more likely to learn attitude from there parents and the people that are closest to them, but it is up to them to decide to act the same or not. That being said, I think people are attracted to people like themselves. People hangout with other people that share the same goals, attitudes, behaviours and interests. So, I think that friends do share common attitudes, and I believe this exhibits itself more as people grow up and discover who they are, what they like and so on. Lastly, I think that people who hangout in a certain”group” may share common attitudes and behaviours. I believe that the closer the group, the more likely of them to share common beliefs, behaviours and attitudes. For example, someone who hangs out with a group once a month, may not be as close as a AAA hockey team that spend time together every night and day. As I said before, people tend to be attracted to people that share the same interests and goals together. This same theory goes for people in groups and if they share the same beliefs, attitudes and behaviours.